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青岛大学2012年硕士研究生入学考试试题: 2012年英语考研真题试卷
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青岛大学2012年硕士研究生入学考试试题


科目代码: 243 科目名称: 英语(外)(共11页)
请考生写明题号,将答案全部答在答题纸上,答在试卷上无效
Part I (15%)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed to write a composition on the topic of Attend Your Classes Regularly. You should write at least 150 words and you should base your composition on the outline given below:
1. 现在大学校园里,迟到、早退、旷课是常见的现象
2. 造成这种现象的各种原因
3. 如何解决这一问题
Part II Vocabulary and Grammar (15%)
Directions: There are 15 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence.
1. We ______ John’s name on the race list yesterday but for his recent injury.
A. will put B. will have put C. would put D. would have put
2. She has already tried her best. Please don’t be too _____ about her job.
A. special B. responsible C. unuaual D. particular
3. Sometimes proper answers are not far to seek food safety problems.
A. in B. to C. on D. after
4. His writing is so confusing that it’s difficult to make out ____ it is he is trying to express.
A. that B. how C. who D. what
5. ―Mike, can you yourself away from the TV for a minute? Go and send the letter for me.‖ said Mrs. Green.
A. push B. drag C. draw D. pull
6. If you _____ faults but you still want the bicycle, ask the shop assistant to
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reduce the price.
A. come across B. care about C. look for. D. focus upon
7. My family were moving to the countryside and I had to make some__ _and learn to lead a different life there.
A.allowance B.accommodation
C.adjustment D.assessment
8. Since the new director took office, we have worked __ _hours, -that is to say, we work more freely.
A.flexible B.compulsory C. strict D.endless
9. — Can you give me some advice about the design?
— I think it should _______ to all ages and social groups.
A. appear B. appeal C. suit D. fit
10. At one point I made up my mind to talk to Uncle Sam. Then I changed my mind, ______ that he could do nothing to help.
A. to realize B. realized C. realizing D. being realized
11. , I managed to get through the game and the pain was worth it in the end.
A. Hopefully B .Normally C. Thankfully D. Conveniently
12. Make sure the gas is turned off after a bath, which would cause danger.
A.somehow B.meanwhile C.otherwise D.furthermore
13. It was __________ back home after he finished the report.
A. not until midnight did he go B. until midnight that he didn’t go
C. not until midnight that he went D. until midnight when he didn’t went
14. She said she was in great need of such a table and asked me how much _____ table would cost.
A. such a beautiful wooden round B. one such beautiful round wooden
C. one such round beautiful wooden D. such a round beautiful wooden
15. I don't mind ______ the decision as long as it is not too late. A. you to delay making B. your delaying making C. your delaying to make D. you delay to make
Part III Cloze (15%)
Directions: There are 15 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C), D). You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage.
Everyone in business has been told that success is all about attracting and
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retaining (留住) customers. It sounds simple and achievable. But, 1 , words of wisdom are soon forgotten. Once companies have attracted customers they often 2 the second half of the story. In the excitement of beating off the competition, negotiating prices, securing orders, and delivering the product, managers tend to become carried away. They forget what they regard as the boring side of business— 3 that the customer remains a customer.
4 to concentrate on retaining as well as attracting customers costs business huge amounts of money annually. It has been estimated that the average company loses between 10 and 30 per cent of its customers every years. In constantly changing 5 , this is not surprising. What is surprising is the fact that few companies have any idea how many customers they have lost.
Only now are organizations beginning to wake up to those lost opportunities and calculate the 6 implications. Cutting down the number of customers a company loses can make a big 7 in its performance. Research in the US found that a five per cent decrease in the number of defecting (流失的) customers led to 8 increases of between 25 and 85 per cent.
In the US, Domino’s Pizza estimates that a regular customer is worth more than $5,000 over ten years. A customer who receives a poor quality product or service on their first visit and 9 never returns, is losing the company thousands of dollars in 10 profits (more if you consider how many people they are likely to tell about their bad experience).
The logic behind cultivating customer 11 is impossible to deny. ―In practice most companies’ marketing effort is focused on getting customers, with little attention paid to 12 them‖, says Adrian Payne of Cornfield University’ School of Management. ―Research suggests that there is a close relationship between retaining customers and making profits. 13 customers tend to buy more, are predictable and usually cost less to service than new customers. Furthermore, they tend to be less price 14 , and may provide free word-of-mouth advertising. Retaining customers also makes it 15 for competitors to enter a market or increase their share of a market.
1.A. in particular B. in reality C. at least D. first of all
2.A. emphasize B. doubt C. overlook D. believe
3.A. denying B. ensuring C. arguing D. proving
4.A. Moving B. Hoping C. Starting D. Failing
5.A. markets B. tastes C. prices D. expenses
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6.A. culture B. social C. financial D. economical
7.A. promise B. plan C. mistake D. difference
8.A. cost B. opportunity C. profit D. budget
9.A. as a result B. on the whole C. in conclusion D. on the contrary
10.A. huge B. potential C. extra D. reasonable
11.A. beliefs B. loyalty C. habits D. interest
12.A. altering B. understanding C. keeping D. attracting
13.A. Assumed B. Respected C. Established D. Unexpected
14.A. agreeable B. flexible C. friendly D. sensitive
15.A. unfair B. difficult C. essential D. convenient
Part IV Reading Comprehension (20%)
Directions: There are 4 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best choice.
Passage One
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage
The garden city was largely the invention of Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928). After immigrating from England to the USA, and an unsuccessful attempt to make a living as a farmer, he moved to Chicago, where he saw the reconstruction of the city after the disastrous fire of 1871. In those days, it was nicknamed ―the Garden City‖, almost certainly the source of Howard’s name for his later building plan of towns. Returning to London, Howard developed his design in the 1880s and 1890s, drawing on ideas that were popular at the time, but creating a unique combination of designs.
The nineteenth-century poor city was in many ways a terrible place, dirty and crowded; but it offered economic and social opportunities. At the same time, the British countryside was in fact equally unattractive: though it promised fresh air and nature, it suffered from agricultural depression and it offered neither enough work and wages, nor much social life. Howard’s idea was to combine the best of town and country in a new kind of settlement, the garden city. Howard’s idea was that a group of people should set up a company, borrowing money to establish a garden city in the depressed countryside; far enough from existing cities to make sure that the land was bought at the bottom price.
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Garden cities would provide a central public open space, radial avenues and connecting industries. They would be surrounded by a much larger area of green belt, also owned by the company, containing not merely farms but also some industrial institutions. As more and more people moved in, the garden city would reach its planned limit-Howard suggested 32,000 people; then, another would be started a short distance away. Thus, over time, there would develop a vast planned house collection, extending almost without limit; within it, each garden city would offer a wide rang of jobs and services, but each would also be connected to the others by a rapid transportation system, thus giving all the economic and social opportunities of a big city.
1. How did Howard get the name for his building plan of garden cities?
A. Through his observation of the country life.
B. Through the combination of different ideas.
C. By taking other people’s advice.
D. By using the nickname of the reconstructed Chicago.
2. The underlined phrase ―drawing on ‖in Paragraph 1 probably means______.
A. making use of B. making comments on
C. giving an explanation of D. giving a description of
3. According to Howard, garden cities should be built______.
A. as far as possible from existing cities
B. in the countryside where the land was cheap
C. in the countryside where agriculture was developed
D. near cities where employment opportunities already existed
4. What can we learn about garden cities from the last paragraph?
A. Their number would continue to rise
B. Each one would continue to become larger
C. People would live and work in the same place
D. Each one would contain a certain type of business
5. What could be the best title for the passage?
A. City and Countryside
B. The Invention of the Garden City
C. A New City in Chicago
D. A Famous Garden City in England
Passage Two
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage
Why should mankind explore space? Why should money, time and effort
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be spent exploring and researching something with so few apparent benefits? Why should resources be spent on space rather than on conditions and people on Earth? These are questions that, understandably, are very often asked.
Perhaps the best answer lies in our genetic makeup(基因构成) as human beings. What drove our ancestors to move from the trees into the plains, and on into all possible areas and environments? The wider the spread of a species, the better its chance of survival. Perhaps the best reason for exploring space is this genetic tendency to expand wherever possible.
Nearly every successful civilization has explored, because by doing so, any dangers in surrounding areas can be identified and prepared for. Without knowledge, we may be completely destroyed by the danger. With knowledge, we can lessen its effects.
Exploration also allows minerals and other potential resources to be found. Even if we have no immediate need of them, they will perhaps be useful later. Resources may be more than physical possessions. Knowledge or techniques have been acquired through exploration. The techniques may have medical applications which can improve the length or quality of our lives. We have already benefited from other spin-offs including improvements in earthquake prediction, in satellites for weather forecasting and in communications systems. Even non-stick pans and mirrored sunglasses are by-products of technological developments in the space, the chance to save ourselves might not exist.
While many resources are spent on what seems a small return, the exploration of space allows creative, brave and intelligent members of our species to focus on what may serve to save us. While space may hold many wonders and explanations of how the universe was formed or how it works, it also holds dangers. The danger exists, but knowledge can help human being to survive. Without the ability to reach out across space, the chance to save ourselves might not exist.
While Earth is the only planet known to support life, surely the adaptive ability of humans would allow us to live on other planets. It is true that the lifestyle would be different, but human life and cultures have adapted in the past and surely could in the future.
6. Why does the author mention the questions in Paragraph1?
A. To express his doubts.
B. To compare different ideas.
C. To introduce points for discussion.
D. To describe the conditions on Earth.
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7. What is the reason for exploring space based on Paragraph2?
A. Humans are nature-born to do so.
B. Humans have the tendency to fight.
C. Humans may find new sources of food.
D. Humans don’t like to stay in the same place.
8. The underlined word ―spin-offs‖ in Paragraph 4 probably refers to______.
A. survival chances B. potential resources
C. unexpected benefits D. physical possessions
9. What makes it possible for humans to live on other planets?
A. Our genetic makeup.
B. Resources on the earth..
C. The adaptive ability of humans.
D. By-products in space exploration.
10. Which of the statements can best sum up the passage?
A. Space exploration has created many wonders.
B. Space exploration provided the best value for money.
C. Space exploration may help us avoid potential problems on Earth.
D. Space exploration can benefit science and technology.
Passage Three
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.
Human remains of ancient settlements will be reburied and lost to science under a law that threatens research into the history of humans in Britain, a group of leading archeologists (考古学家) says. In a letter addressed to the justice secretary, Ken Clarke, 40 archaeologists write of their ―deep and widespread concern‖ about the issue. It centers on the law introduced by the Ministry of Justice in 2008 which requires all human remains unearthed in England and Wales to be reburied within two years, regardless of their age. The decision means scientists have too little time to study bones and other human remains of national and cultural significance.
―Your current requirement that all archaeologically unearthed human remains should be reburied, whether after a standard period of two years or a further special extension, is contrary to basic principles of archaeological and scientific research and of museum practice,‖ they write.
The law applies to any pieces of bone uncovered at around 400 dig sites, including the remains of 60 or so bodies found at Stonehenge in 2008 that date back to 3,000 BC. Archaeologists have been granted a temporary extension to give them more time, but eventually the bones will have to be returned to the
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ground.
The arrangements may result in the waste of future discoveries at sites such as Happisburgh in Norfolk, where digging is continuing after the discovery of stone tools made by early humans 950,000 years ago. If human remains were found at Happisburgh, they would be the oldest in northern Europe and the first indication of what this species was. Under the current practice of the law those remains would have to be reburied and effectively destroyed.
Before 2008, guidelines allowed for the proper preservation and study of bones of sufficient age and historical interest, while the Burial Act 1857 applied to more recent remains. The Ministry of Justice assured archaeologists two years ago that the law was temporary, but has so far failed to revise it.
Mike Parker Pearson, an archaeologist at Sheffield University, said: ―Archaeologists have been extremely patient because we were led to believe the ministry was sorting out this problem, but we feel that we cannot wait any longer.‖
The ministry has no guidelines on where or how remains should be reburied, or on what records should be kept.
11. The underlined word ―remains‖ in the first paragraph has closest meaning with :
A. leftover B. stay C. body D. organ
12. According to the passage, scientists are unhappy with the law mainly because ______.
A. it is only a temporary measure on the human remains
B. it is unreasonable and thus destructive to scientific research
C. it was introduced by the government without their knowledge
D. it is vague about where and how to rebury human remains
13. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
A.Temporary extension of two years will guarantee scientists enough time.
B. Human remains of the oldest species were dug out at Happisburgh.
C. Human remains will have to be reburied despite the extension of time.
D. Scientists have been warned that the law can hardly be changed.
14. What can be inferred about the British law governing human remains?
A. The Ministry of Justice did not intend it to protect human remains.
B. The Burial Act 1857 only applied to remains uncovered before 1857.
C. The law on human remains hasn’t changed in recent decades.
D. The Ministry of Justice has not done enough about the law.
15. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage?
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A. New discoveries should be reburied, the government demands.
B. Research time should be extended, scientists require.
C. Law on human remains needs thorough discussion, authorities say.
D. Law could bury ancient secrets for ever, archeologists warn.
Passage Four
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.
In the more and more competitive service industry, it is no longer enough to promise customer satisfaction. Today, customer ―delight‖ is what companies are trying to achieve in order to keep and increase market share.
It is accepted in the marketing industry, and confirmed by a number of researchers, that customers receiving good service will promote business by telling up to 12 other people; those treated badly tell tales of woe to up to 20 people. Interestingly, 80 percent of people who feel their complaints are handled fairly will stay loyal.
New challenges for customer care have come when people can obtain goods and services through telephone call centers and the Internet. For example, many companies now have to invest (投资) a lot of money in information technology and staff training in order to cope with the ―phone rage‖---- caused by delays in answering calls, being cut off in mid-conversation or left waiting for long periods.
―Many people do not like talking to machines,‖ says Dr, Storey, Senior Lecturer in Marketing at City University Business School. ―Banks, for example, encourage staff at call centers to use customer data to establish instant and good relationship with then. The aim is to make the customer feel they know you and that you can trust them – the sort of comfortable feelings people have during face-to-face chats with their local branch manager.‖
Recommended ways of creating customer delight include: under-promising and over-delivering (saying that a repair will be carried out within five hours, but getting it done within two) replacing a faulty product immediately; throwing in a gift voucher (购物礼券)as an unexpected ―thank you‖ to regular customers; and always returning calls, even when they are complaints.
Aiming for customer delight is all very well, but if services do not reach the high level promised, disappointment or worse will be the result. This can be eased by offering an apology and an explanation of why the service did not meet usual standards with empathy (for example, ―I know how you must feel‖), and possible solutions (replacement, compensation or whatever fairness
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suggests best meets the case).
Airlines face some of the toughest challenges over customer care. Fierce competition has convinced them at that delighting passengers is an important marketing tool, while there is great potential for customer anger over delays caused by weather, unclaimed luggage and technical problems.
For British Airways staff, a winning telephone style is considered vital in handling the large volume of calls about bookings and flight times. They are trained to answer quickly, with their names, job title and a ―we are here to help‖ attitude. The company has invested heavily in information technology to make sure that information is available instantly on screen.
British Airways also says its customer care policies are applied within the company and staff are taught to regard each other as customers requiring the highest standards of service.
Customer care is obviously here to stay and it would be a foolish company that used slogans such as ―we do as we please‖. On the other hand, the more customers are promised, the greater the risk of disappointment.
16. We can learn from Paragraph 2 that _______.
A. complaining customers are hard to satisfy
B. unsatisfied customers receive better service
C .satisfied customers catch more attention
D. well-treated customers promote business
17. The writer mentions ―phone rage‖(Paragraph 3)to show that ________.
A. customers often use phones to express their anger
B. people still prefer to buy goods online
C. customer care becomes more demanding
D. customers rely on their phones to obtain services
18. What does the writer recommend to create customer delight?
A. Calling customers regular. B. Gibing a ―thank you ―note..
C. Delivering a quicker service. D. Promising more gifts.
19. Customer delight is important for airlines because ________.
A. their telephone style remains unchanged
B. they are more likely to meet with complaints
C. the services cost them a lot of money
D. the policies can be applied to their staff
20. Which of the following is conveyed in this article?
A. Face-to –face service creates comfortable feelings among customers.
B. Companies that promise more will naturally attract more customers.
C. A company should promise less but do more in a competitive market.
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D. Customer delight is more important for air lines then for banks.
Part V Translation (35%)
A:Directions: Translate the following sentences into English (20%)
1. 你为什么不在网上订票? (Why)
2. 我常把王海误认为他的双胞胎弟弟,因为他们长得太像了。(mistake)
3. 对父母而言,没有什么能与孩子的身心健康相比。 (compare)
4. 自从出国留学后,她就不再和我们保持联系了。 (No longer)
5. 如果能找到任何适合你的学习方法,你的学习效率就可能明显提高。(whatever)
B: Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. (15%)
1) While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians, modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past. Caught in the web of its own time and place, each generation of historians determines anew what is significant for it in the past. In this search the evidence found is always incomplete and scattered; it is also frequently partial or partisan. The irony of the historian's craft is that its practitioners always know that their efforts are but contributions to an unending process.
2) Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves. While history once revered its affinity to literature and philosophy, the emerging social sciences seemed to afford greater opportunities for asking new questions and providing rewarding approaches to an understanding of the past. Social science methodologies had to be adapted to a discipline governed by the primacy of historical sources rather than the imperatives of the contemporary world. 3) During this transfer, traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.

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